Sex Education

Sex Education (Grades 9-12)

Applicable to Courses: Sex Education

Image of Sex EducationDescription of Students' Roles and Problem Situation: The role of the students is to find an effective way for schools to teach sex education.

Educational Goals: The students will

  • Learn about the reproductive system
  • Learn the law of the state on sex education
  • Learn about contraception
  • Learn computer skills
  • Learn public speaking skills
  • Learn life skills

Submitting Teacher: Jillian Vinson jillsonam@aol.com


Buncombe County Board of Education


To: Health Occupations Students of Enka High School
From: John Kemp, Buncombe County Superintendent
Date: August 28, 1999
Re: Buncombe county having the second highest teen pregnancy rate in the state.

The 1998 report released by the North Carolina Health Organization reported that Buncombe County had the second highest pregnancy rate in all 100 counties in North Carolina. We are taking this statistic as a wake up call; we want to find a solution to this problem. We are asking you the health occupation Medical Sciences I class to help us with this problem. We need for you to help us find what will work to get this pregnancy rate down. We want to get started on this as soon as possible so we asked that you have your final recommendations to us by September 5, 1999. We have allotted some money for this project but we could not find much, so we only have a $5000 dollar budget to work with. Your help is much appreciated. We are looking forward to getting your recommendations.

Information Document:


Sexual Behavior

Males have sex earlier than females. Males were twice as likely as females to have had sex prior to age 13 (10% vs 5%).

More females than males are forced to have sex. Twice as many female students as male students had physical force used against them when they had sex for the first time (4% vs 2%) and were ever forced or pressured to have sex (11% vs 5%).

Over one-fourth of sexually active students use drugs before sex. Overall, 28% of students used alcohol or drugs prior to sex.

Over half of sexually active students use condoms. Overall, 60% of sexually active students used a condom during their most recent sexual experience.

Nationally, 54% of students (grades 9 to 12) used a condom in 1995.

Early sexual activity is associated with unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including HIV infection, and negative effects on social and psychological development.

Number of sexual partners and age at first intercourse are associated with STD. Alcohol and drug use may serve as predisposing factors for initiation of sexual activity and unprotected sexual intercourse. Of the 12 million new cases of STD per year in the United States, 86 percent are among people aged 15 to 29.29 STD may result in infertility and facilitation of HIV transmission and may have an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome and maternal and child health.

AIDS is the sixth leading cause of death for youth aged 15 to 24 in the United States.3 Nationwide, 53 percent of students in grades 9 to 12 have already had sexual intercourse. While heterosexual transmission was once uncommon, recent trends indicate that growing numbers of individuals are at risk of contracting HIV in this way. Many people, especially adolescents, do not have the knowledge, awareness, and skills necessary to prevent their becoming infected. Besides abstinence, condom use is currently the most effective means of preventing sexual transmission of HIV. In Vermont, 312 residents were diagnosed as having AIDS as of June 30, 1997 Up to eight times this number may be infected with HIV, and many of these people may not be aware of their infection. Many more Vermonters are at risk of acquiring HIV infection through unprotected sex with multiple partners or intravenous drug use. No area of the state remains unaffected.

Teen Pregnancy: More than one million teenage girls in the United States become pregnant each year and about half of them give birth.33 One-third of all unintended pregnancies occur among teenagers, and 75 percent of teenage pregnancies occur among adolescents who are not using contraception. In 1994, the teen pregnancy rate in Vermont was 30.1 pregnancies per 1,000 girls age 15 to 17, which has dropped since 1991 (37.8 pregnancies per 1,000).

Significant Learner Characteristics:

Relate to subject. Subjects are or know a sexually active teen.

Care deeply about their personal situation.

Want to be independent.

Want to fit in with their peer group.

Are modest about the topic.

Can understand and abstract concepts.

Have own set of morals and beliefs, which could influence their decisions making.



Health Occupations Medical Science 1 Curriculum:

  • Reproductive system
  • Analyze the reproductive system as it relates to the human body
  • Analyze the anatomy and physiology of the reproductive system
  • Classify disease disorders of the reproductive system according to etiologies diagnoses treatment and care rehabilitation
  • Explore technology and career paths associated with the reproductive system.
  • Interdisciplinary areas of study:
    1. Social Studies CurriculumGOAL 1: Recurring Issues and Problems

      The learner will investigate issues and problems confronting the American economic, legal and political systems.

      1.1 Describe examples of recurring public problems and issues.

      1.3 Evaluate strengths and limitations of the economic, legal, and political systems in resolving problems.

      1.4 Make inferences regarding relationships among economic, legal and political problems.

      1.6 Compare differing points of view on the proper role of government in the personal lives of citizens.

      GOAL 6: Frame of Government/Supreme Law of the Land/Individual Rights

      The learner will explain the function and importance of the North Carolina and United States Constitutions.

      6.3 Explain how constitutions grant and limit the authority of public officials and government agencies.

      GOAL 10: Influence of Ethics, Morality, and Religion

      The learner will evaluate the influence of ethical and moral principles and religious beliefs on the development of our economic, legal and political systems.

      10.1 Analyze individual and group decisions on the basis of a variety of standards including aesthetic, pragmatic, and ethical.

      10.3 Evaluate positions on a variety of issues against given criteria.

    2. K-12 Computer/Technology SkillsGRADE LEVEL: 9-12

      Health/Physical Education

      3.1 Select and use appropriate technology tools to efficiently collect, analyze, and display data.

      3.2 Use technology for experiments and/or research.

      3.3 Use electronic resources for research.

      3.4 Select and use technological tools for class assignments, projects, and presentations.

      3.5 Adhere to Fair Use and Multimedia Copyright

      Guidelines, citing sources of copyrighted materials in papers, projects, and multimedia presentations.

    3. Science Curriculum


      COMPETENCY GOAL 2: The learner will develop an understanding of the continuity of life and the changes of organisms over time.


      2.02 Compare and contrast the characteristics of asexual and sexual reproduction.

    4. Healthful Living CurriculumGrade Level Nine-Twelve

      3. Self-Protection

      3.1 Interpreting the importance of various health risks.

      3.2 Analyzing own perceptions of health risks.

      3.3 Prioritizing own health risks.

      3.4* Understanding that a mutually faithful monogamous heterosexual relationship in the context of marriage is the best lifelong means of avoiding sexually-transmitted diseases.

      3.5* Refining skills and strategies for remaining or becoming abstinent from sexual intercourse.

      3.6* Understanding causes, consequences, and prevention of major health risk behaviors for own age group.

      * Each school year, before students may participate in any portion of (i) a program that pertains to or is intended to impart information or promote discussion or understanding in regard to the prevention of sexually-transmitted diseases, including Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), or to the avoidance of out-of-wedlock pregnancy, (ii) an abstinence until marriage program, or (iii) a comprehensive sex education program, whether developed by the State or by the local board of education, the parents and legal guardians of those students shall be given an opportunity to review the objectives and materials. Local boards of education shall adopt policies to provide opportunities either for parents and legal guardians to consent or for parents and legal guardians to withhold their consent to the students' participation in any or all of these programs.

      3.7 Constructing a model health risk behavior self-management plan.



  1. Buncombe County has the second highest pregnancy rate in the state.
  2. $5000 has been allotted to fund the solution

  3. A solution needs to be reached by September 5, 1999.

  4. Buncombe County Superintendent wants the pregnancy rate to drop.

  5. Males have sex earlier than females. Males were twice as likely as females to have had sex prior to age 13 (10% vs 5%).

  6. Early sexual activity is associated with unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including HIV infection.

  7. Teen Pregnancy: More than one million teenage girls in the United States become pregnant each year and about half of them give birth.

  8. One-third of all unintended pregnancies occur among teenagers, and 75 percent of teenage pregnancies occur among adolescents who are not using contraception.

  9. Over half of sexually active students use condoms. Overall, 60% of sexually active students used a condom during their most recent sexual experience.

  10. Nationally, 54% of students (grades 9 to 12) used a condom in 1995.

Need to Know

  1. What age to start teaching sex ed?
  2. When do children become sexually active?
  3. Who’s job is it to teach?
  4. What can the school teach?
  5. What types of contraception works best against pregnancy?
  6. What causes pregnancy?
  7. Should you teach males and females together.
  8. Who does this problem affect who might give donations for prevention?


Problem Statement

How can we as, Enka High School Health Occupation Students develop a sex education program that will decrease the pregnancy rate in Buncombe County in such a way that:

  • It causes the least amount of protest from public.
  • It is cost effective to the state and county.
  • It educates the students in an effective manner.
  • It meets proposal deadlines.
  • It adheres to state guidelines.


Problem Map


Badasch, S. A., & Chesebro, D.S. (1988). The health care worker and introduction to health occupations (2nd ed.). Englewood, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Differences between effective and ineffective sex education programs. http://www.caps.ucsf.edu/toolbox/SCIENCEschoolA.html, July 16, 1999.

How much do you know about teens and sex. http://www.education.indiana.edu/cas/tt/v1i3/how.html, July 16, 1999.

Jones, Doug. [interview]. Buncombe county curriculum department. July 14, 1999.

Kent, Debra. What kinds of questions do teen have about sex?. http://www.education.indiana.edu/cas/tt/v1i3/kinds.html , July 16, 1999.

Rabasca, Lisa. Not enough evidence to support "abstinence-only" http://www.apa.org/monitor/dec99/pi1.html, December 11, 1999.

North Carolina Curriculum. Framework for healthful living education. (1996). Raleigh: North Carolina.

Olds, S.B., London, M.L., Ladewig, P.W., (1996). Maternal newborn nursing (5th ed.). Menlo Park, California: Addison-Wesley.

Smith, Mike., Students safety and sex. http://familyeducation.com/article/0,1120,1-585,00.html, July 16, 1999.

Van Dorn, Betsy, Just say no-is it enough? http://www.familyeducation.com/topic/front/0,1156,1-2134,00.html, July 16, 1999.


Problem and Authenticity: The students will be required to present their findings in an Oral Presentation. With in the oral presentation they must include references to back up there solution at least one Internet source, and at least one visual aid. During the presentation they will be required to maintain good body mechanics and have eye contact. The presentations must include a review of the reproductive system and their solution to the problem. This presentation will be in front of the class and the teacher. After students hear the presentations they will then be required as a class to pick the best solution either, presented by a group or a combination of solutions. They then must write in their small groups a proposal to the county superintendent stating the solution that the class comes up with. This is authentic because the County Board wanted the classes solution to the problem. This gives the students practice at presenting information to each other and then working together as a class to find a solution. Then to finish the problem they have to present the problem to the county superintendent. To do this they have to write a proposal.

Related and Stated objectives:

  1. Health Occupations: This objective is meet because the students will be required to go over the reproductive system.
  2. Healthful Living Curriculum: This objective will be filled because in the presentations the students will review there understanding of the cause, consequences and prevention of a major health risk behavior.
  3. K-12 Computer/technology Skills: This objective will be meet because the students are required to include an electronic resource that they had to find on the Internet.

Promotes Learning of new or refined skills/knowledge: The students will learn the skill of giving oral presentations. The will also refine there skills of writing by writing the final proposal.

Addresses at least 2 types if assessment (group, peer, self):

  1. Peer: The students in the audience will be assessing the students giving the presentation. They will be using the same Rubric that the instructor will be using.
  2. Group: the students will meet after there presentation and assess how they felt that they did, again they will use the same Rubric that the peers and instructor used.
  3. Self: The self evaluations be on the same rubric they will simply write on a piece of paper what they felt there strengths were in the oral presentation.

States audience for performance: The audience for the oral presentation is the students and the instructor. The audience for the write pergolas is the principal. If the principal like the ideas maybe he will submit them to the school board.

Describes what students will do to share solutions to problem: The students will do the oral presentations to share with there classmates. They will chose the best during the debriefing session with their classmates.


Body Mechanics: 10pts

10 pts

  • Speaks clearly with appropriate volume, Points:-----
  • maintains eye contact with audience.       Comments:
  • Has appropriate body movements.

5 Pts Points:-----

  • Only has two of the above Comments:

Resources: 30pts

30 pts Points:-----

  • Use of at least one internet source to back up data, and support findings. Comments:

15 pts Points: ----

  • make reference to internet article but does not support the content or back up information   Comments:

Visual Aid: 10pts

10 pts

  • has a creative, eye catching visual aid Points:----
  • Visual aid is neat Comments:
  • Visual aid is the appropriate size for the class to see.

5 pts Points:----

  • Visual aid has only two of the above criteria. Comments:

Content/organization: 50pts

50 pts Points:----

  • Problem stated and explained, solution stated and explained, verifying information provided, solution sound and workable Comments:

25 pts Points:----

  • Only three of the above Comments:



  1. To start a "comprehensive sex education program in all schools. This program needs to be started in the middle school setting. It is targeted at the middle school aged students due to the very young teenagers who are having sex and are unprepared for it. The goal of this program is to let the student know safe means of birth control and was to find the birth control.
  2. The second solution is to make condoms available in the schools. In bathroom vending machines or by the guidance counselors. After there is training on the proper way to use a condom to both males and females.


  1. Teens who educated this way are twice as likely to use protection when having sex than those who were not taught this way.
  2. Students learn about biology (reproduction)
  3. Learn about coping and how to deal with a relationship.
  4. Learn methods to prevent sexual abuse
  5. Learn about affective birth control methods.
  6. The students are having sex at an earlier age and this will prepare them.
  7. Will not cost any more than what sex ed. cost now and it does not take any more time.
  8. American journal of public health states that having condoms makes sexually active teens more likely to use them, but does not encourage not active teens to have sex.
  9. The program was a success in New York City, where first used.
  10. Would also decrease the incidence of STD’s
  11. Has been proven that higher risk teens (more than three sexual partners) will use the condom provided.


  1. This type of sex education also brings in the topic of abortion, which can be controversial.
  2. It also requires that students know where they can get birth control.
  3. This requires some students to be exposed to sex before even thought of.
  4. It teaches more than just abstinence, which is what some parents only want their children to be taught.
  5. Federal law prohibits the use of money to discuses or support contraception in schools.
  6. Many parents would not want condoms to be available to their child.
  7. Many feel that this would sent mixed messages about abstinence.
  8. Many feel that school is not the place.
  9. North Carolina prohibits teachers from giving students condoms.


  1. Teens who go though this would be more likely to use protection.
  2. Many religious organizations may object due to the topic of birth control and abortion (as well as pro life supporters)
  3. Many parents may not want their children to be educated this in depth at the middle school age.
  4. This would be costly to buy the condoms.
  5. Public may not support.
  6. No federal funding for sex education would make it hard to find teachers to teach sex education.

I choose the first solution. I feel that it would be less controversial than the second option. It would reach the children at a younger age so they would be more informed, since teens are having sex earlier. The old way of abstinence only does not seem to be working so this would give student a larger picture on the education they need about sex. It has also had success rates. The students would need the same amount of classroom time and the program would not cost the county any more money.


Review: At the beginning of the debriefing session all groups will chose a group leader to stand in front of the class and give a one minute summary of what their solution was.

Rating of solutions: After the review each group’s solution will be identified as the group leaders name. The students will then brake down into their original groups. The groups will then write each group’s leaders name down on a piece of paper. Finally they will number the best #1, the next best#2 and so on until all groups have a number. The students must also write a sentence beside the best as to why they felt it was the best the benefits. Then each group shares their answers with the other groups; with why they felt that number one was the best. The results of the group rating are than tallied on the board.

Coaching Questions: After every one as presented their rating the teacher will begin with there coaching questions. They will ask students leading questions that will make them realize information that they missed. Or asks them questions to make them realize the importance of some of the information.

Formulate one best solution form all student solutions of any new issues that have been raised: This will be done by class decision. If it is the first time the class has done a PBL than the instructor will lead the discussion, but if they have done PBl’s before than a student will lead the PBL. Students will discuses the solution that they think is best and why. They will debate and compromise until one solution can be made. If there is a debate over two and the debriefing time is ending than the class will come to a vote on the best solution.


Meeting the problem:

  • What is your role in this memo that you have been sent? (Cognition)
  • How long do you have to complete the task that they sent you? (Cognition)
  • Who is giving you this problem that is in the memo? (Cognition)

Know/need to know Board:

  • How do you know that condoms reduce pregnancy rates? (Epistemic)
  • What else do you need to know about the counties past sex education programs? (metacognition)
  • What else do we know about pregnancy in Buncombe County? (Cognition)

Writing problem statement:

  • What is the problem in the memo? (Cognition)
  • What are we going to try and do with teen pregnancy? (metacognition)
  • What else about teaching teen pregnancy may you need to consider? (Metacognition)

Information Gathering & Sharing:

  • Are you sure that is an effective way to prevent pregnancy? (Metacognition)
  • What seems important to teach in sex education?(Metacognition)
  • Have you considered another solution to the pregnancy problem? (Metacognition)

Generating Possible Solutions:

  • How do you know that staring sex education at a young age works to decrease pregnancy? (Epistemic)
  • What solution do you all think would fit the problem with the least amount of protest? (Epistemic)
  • What have you learned about the reproductive system? (Cognition)